Author Archives: Kaylin D.

4 Leaders to Learn About During Black Futures Month

Black scientists and leaders have always been at the forefront of leading change in wildlife conservation, advocating for environmental justice, and creating access to nature.  

Back in 1896, the renowned scientist George Washington Carver established an agriculture department at Tuskegee University to research soil degradation and teach alternative farming methods. 

In 1903, Colonel Charles Young became the first Black National Park Superintendent and was a true steward of the land by working to preserve the ancient, namesake trees in Sequoia National Park.  

Later in the 20th century, Hazel Johnson, known as the Mother of Environmental Justice, stood in the oval office as President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 to identify and protect environmental justice communities at a federal level.  

During Black History Month, we are reminded of the lasting impacts Carver, Young, Johnson, and many other historical Black American leaders have had on our environment. To build off of these powerful stories and honor Black Futures Month, here are four people making history today. 

Lisa Jackson

Lisa Perez Jackson is a chemical engineer who began her career at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1987. She worked in the public sector in roles spanning from staff-level positions to Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. In 2009, President Barack Obama appointed her as Administrator of the EPA, making her the first Black person to hold that position. 

During her time as Administrator, Jackson focused on improving air and water quality, eliminating greenhouse gases, and expanding outreach to communities on environmental issues. 

Today, Jackson is Vice President of Environmental, Policy, and Social Initiatives at Apple. She oversees Apple’s efforts to address climate change through renewable energy and energy efficiency, using green materials, and inventing new ways to conserve resources. 

Lisa Jackson

Additionally, Jackson leads Apple’s Racial Equity and Justice Initiative — focused on education, economic opportunity, and criminal justice reform — and is responsible for Apple’s education policy programs, its product accessibility work, and its worldwide government affairs function. 

She was named as one of Fast Company’s “Most Creative People” in 2019 and named a “Game Changer” by Vogue Australia in 2018.

Jerome Foster II

Voices like Jerome Foster II prove that teenagers and young adults have the power to make a change on a national level. When the Biden administration created the White House Environmental Justice Advisory Council (WHEJAC) in 2021, Foster was chosen to represent young people and the Northeast Region of the US. Foster became the youngest-ever White House Advisor in United States history at age 18. According to the White House, council members like Foster provide valuable insight into how the Federal Government should tackle the climate crisis and advance environmental justice especially for disadvantaged communities. 

Jerome wears a blue shirt with a globe on it while talking into a microphone.
Jerome Foster II

He served as intern for the late Honorable John Lewis at 16-years old and served as Board Member for the DC State Board of Education’s High School Graduation Requirements Task Force at 15. He is Co-Founder and Co-Executive Director at Waic Up which is an international communication to community impact charity that is an expansion of OneMillionOfUs, which mobilized a movement of young people to vote in the 2020 Presidential Elections.

Wanjiku (Wawa) Gatheru 

Another influential young climate activist, Wanjiku (Wawa) Gatheru, has almost a decade of experience in environmental and climate activism. Gatheru is the daughter of Agĩkũyũ (an ethnic group in Kenya) Kenyan immigrants and at a young age was taught to give back to the earth and care for the planet. Combining this appreciation for the Earth with a passion sparked by an environmental science class she took when she was 15, Gatheru made it her mission to elevate the importance of the climate movement and make it more accessible and inclusive for all. 

At the University of Connecticut, Gatheru co-founded the UConn Access to Food Effort (UCAFE) to combat campus food insecurity. She spearheaded numerous other environmental efforts throughout her time at UConn, eventually leading her to become the first Black person to receive the Rhodes, Truman, and Udall Scholarships. 

Wawa centered with her hands on her heart as the adults around her clap their hands.
Wawa Gatheru honored at the State House of Representatives in Hartford for becoming University of Connecticut’s first Rhodes Scholar © Peter Morenus

In 2021, Gatheru created Black Girl Environmentalist (BGE) to support Black girls, women, and non-binary people in the environmental field. BGE creates opportunities for Black community members to succeed as environmentalists by offering online and in-person programs, workshops, mentorships, and other educational resources.  

Kai Lightner

At the age of six, Kai Lightner found the perfect outlet to focus his ADHD on a physical and mental task: rock climbing. Climbing quickly ignited a passion within Lightner and he successfully competed nationally and internationally, winning 12 national championships (2 adult; 10 youth), 5 Pan American Championships (1 adult; 4 youth), and 1 Youth World Championship.  

Kai stands in the forefront on a rock with his hands in his pockets and a blue jacket. In the background, we can see people at the base of a massive boulder.
Kai Lightner © Ted Distel

Throughout his time competing, Lightner grew his appreciation for new places and different cultures and wanted other young adults and youth to have the same opportunities. Inspired by the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, Lightner recognized inequitable access to outdoor industries like climbing for underserved communities. In response, he created Climbing for Change (C4C), a nonprofit that supports kids with backgrounds like his to excel in rock climbing and bridge the gap between underserved minorities and outdoor activities. To learn more about Kai or C4C, visit or 

Making a Local Impact 

As we reflect on the strides that many of these scientists and activists have taken to advance equitable access to nature, community health and safety, and environmental advocacy, we also recognize that the work is far from done. You can learn about and support local Black-led environmental justice groups like:

Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE)

The Rusty Anvil

Community Action Works

Neighbor 2 Neighbor

Family holding hands on a path in the woods.

To learn more about other Mass Audubon Diversity and Equity initiatives and programs, visit our Diversity & Inclusion page.   

Woman sitting on a bench in the woods, looking through a pair of binoculars.

A Beginner’s Guide to Binoculars 

Binoculars are simple, right? Look through one end, turn a nob at the top, and call it good? It’s actually a little more complex than that. Among other things, wildlife watchers need to consider magnification, weight, and field of view. Lucky for you, the Mass Audubon Shop has the low-down on everything related to optics. 

Binoculars vs. Scopes 

Birders use both binoculars and scopes, but there are some key differences. As the name binoculars suggest, binoculars have two objective lenses, one on the end of each barrel. Scopes, on the other hand, only have one objective lens. With one large lens, scopes typically capture more light, allowing you to see at higher magnifications and are more useful when looking across great distances. Binoculars are a great introduction to optics, as they are more portable, more affordable, and also provide crystal-clear vision.  

A man standing on sand dunes looking through a pair of binoculars. A scope on a tripod is set up in front of him.
© Dennis Welsh

What to Look for in Binoculars 

Every pair of binoculars is marked with a set of numbers, such as “8 x 42,” which refers to the magnification (8) of the binoculars and the diameter of the objective lens (42). The magnification used by most birders is usually between 7 and 10, but don’t make the mistake of thinking bigger is better. A lower magnification means you can see a wider field of view and it is easier to keep the image steady. A higher magnification sees more detail, but the field of view is reduced. If you are inexperienced in using binoculars, a wider field of view of an 8-power (vs. a 10) is more helpful when trying to locate a bird or animal in the distance. 

The larger the objective lens, the more light can enter and, theoretically, the brighter the image should be. A larger objective lens also increases binocular size and weight—something to consider if you are hiking all day. 

Using Your Binoculars

First, check to see if the eyecups are turned up or down (when binoculars come out of the box, eyecups are typically down). People with glasses should use their binoculars with the eye cups twisted down. 

Once the eye cups are in the proper position for you, hold the left barrel steady and rotate the right barrel until you see one perfect circle of light through both eyes. Then, use the center focusing wheel to create a single, clear, crisp image.

Diagram of binocular components, including the eyecups, diopter adjustment, center focusing wheel, and the left and right barrels.

The Diopter Adjustment

Some binoculars have a diopter adjustment, an additional focusing tool typically used by people without glasses, and can be found as a ring on the right barrel. This adjustment accounts for any vision variances between your eyes and allows you to set the focus to accommodate the difference. There are a couple of ways to see if the diopter should be used—one of the most common procedures is doing a “triple check”.  

  1. On the first check, look through both barrels at a stationary object and use the focusing wheel to sharpen the image.  
  1. Next, cover the right barrel with your hand while keeping both eyes open. If the image is still clear with just the left barrel open, then do not adjust anything. If the image is fuzzy, readjust the focusing wheel.  
  1. For the last and final check, cover the left barrel—if everything is clear on the right eye, do not adjust anything. If you need to sharpen the image, slightly turn the diopter adjustment until the image is crisp.  

From there, do not turn the diopter ring—you will only need to use the main focusing wheel while exploring or viewing an object. 

Cleaning Your Binocular Lenses

If you notice your lenses could use a cleaning, first blow across the lens surface or use a “cleaning pen” (which looks more like a paintbrush than a pen) to remove any dirt or debris that could scratch the lens. 

Similar to cleaning a pair of reading glasses, lenses should be cleaned lightly with a microfiber cloth.  It’s helpful to breathe on the lens before using the cloth. Never use Windex or other similar glass cleaning products on the lenses.

Woman sitting on a bench in the woods, looking through a pair of binoculars.
© Phil Doyle

Buying the Right Binoculars

The best way to get an accurate feel for a pair of binoculars is by trying them out in person with our experts at the Mass Audubon Shop. We carry six different brands with varying magnifications, and members get a 10% discount. Plan your visit to the shop by going to

Take a Virtual Trip to the Shop to Learn about Buying Binoculars