Category Archives: Resources

Bald Eagle via USFWS

Rat Poison Is Killing Birds Of Prey, And People Are Finally Paying Attention

Note: this post contains an image of a dead Bald Eagle that some readers may find graphic.

Most rat poisons kill more than rats—they also pose a fatal threat to birds of prey. This topic recently made the news after a Bald Eagle on Cape Cod died of what appears to be rodenticide poisoning. The tragic story was picked up by several newspapers, and went locally viral on facebook.

This issue should not only get attention when a culturally iconic species like a Bald Eagle dies. Nearly every raptor species is vulnerable to rodenticide poisoning, from Eastern Screech-Owls to Red-tailed Hawks.

In fact, rodenticide poisoning is shockingly widespread. In one study, 86% of all raptors at a Massachusetts wildlife hospital tested positive for exposure to rat poison.

Second-generation rodenticides: the worst of a bad bunch

The EPA recently banned a class of rat poisons called second-generation anticoagulants from the consumer market, but licensed exterminators are still allowed to deploy them. The ban came about because of the 10,000 children annually admitted to emergency rooms for rat poison exposure. The ban certainly helps limit accidental ingestion by humans, but unfortunately doesn’t do much to prevent birds from eating poisoned rodents.

Second-generation anticoagulants don’t kill rodents immediately. While these rodenticides can kill rats with a single dose (which is why many consumers prefer them), poisoned rats can still live for a few days and continue eating poisoned bait. This delay means that rats can ingest enough poison to kill a much larger animal by the time they finally succumb. While any rodenticide can kill a raptor, second-generation anticoagulants are the most dangerous.

The aforementioned Bald Eagle on Cape Cod likely fell victim to this class of rodenticide. While vets at the Cape Wildlife Center are still waiting for test results to come back, the eagle was bleeding heavily, and its blood failed to form scabs or clots—a nearly sure sign of anticoagulant poisoning.

This Bald Eagle was admitted to Cape Wildlife Center, but sadly didn’t make it. Photo courtesy of Cape Wildlife Center.

Rats are a human-made problem

Native to Eurasia, brown rats have colonized much of the globe and become the most common urban rodent worldwide. These rats were among the first human-assisted invasive species, living aboard ships and rapidly spreading to other continents as early as the 15th century, much to the detriment of countless sensitive ecosystems. Rats and other rodents especially wreak havoc on species found only on small islands, and have driven several seabird species to extinction.

Rat populations are on the rise, and towns are struggling to keep up (the town of Belmont even had to close a city park over a recent rat infestation). Rodent control is sometimes critical to the health of a city or an ecosystem—so what are some poison-free ways to prevent or control rodent problems?

(Don’t) pick your poison

  • Prevention is the best cure for rodent problems. Rodent infestations only occur when there’s an easy source of food. Make sure your trash cans are scavenger-proof, cover vegetable gardens with net or wire, attach tree guards to the trunks of fruit trees.
  • Limit access to shelter and hiding places that appeal to rodents. Seal up holes in your attic, basement, crawl spaces, and shed, and remove tree limbs within three feet of your roof.
  • Consider alternatives to poison. The Tufts Wildlife Clininc points out, “People often believe poisons are more humane than snap traps, but an animal bleeding to death is neither quick nor especially humane.”
  • If a rodent problem has gotten out of hand and you choose to use an exterminator, try to pick one that practices “integrated pest management”— a multi-pronged approach that avoids chemical control methods.
  • Finally, call your town or city hall and ask how the local government addresses rodent control. Suggest eliminating rat poison if it hasn’t been done already!

 

Finding Your First Whip-poor-will

 

Photo by David Larson

A drab bird with a startling call, the Whip-poor-will’s perfect camouflage belies its incredible voice. This nocturnal hunter can broadcast its loud, rhythmic whistle as many as 10,000 times over the course of one night. Wherever Whip-poor-wills live, their sound is as much a part of a summer evening as the familiar chirp of crickets and the whirr of cicadas.

Where’d All The Whip-poor-wills Go?

“Whip-poor-will” is practically a household name. But far more people have heard of them than have actually heard their call. This is no accident—the species has been in trouble since the turn of the 20th century.

Whip-poor-wills’ decline has largely followed the decline of large moths, their favorite food. Recently, a landmark study showed that Whip-poor-wills and other insect-eating birds have been feeding on less and less nutritious prey, as their choices are diminished by pesticide use and habitat destruction.

The Key to Whip-poor-will Habitat

Whip-poor-wills have two main habitat requirements. Firstly, their preference for the largest insects means they require healthy ecosystems that can support Luna moths, Catocala moths, and big grasshoppers. Whip-poor-wills will avoid areas with urban or suburban development, or where pesticide spraying reduces the numbers of large insects. This does not mean that they are averse to open areas—Whip-poor-wills are often found in small agricultural fields, as long as there is little or no chemical disturbance.

Secondly, Whip-poor-wills avoid forests with thick understories and midstory vegetation. While they prefer habitats with some tree cover, they need an open midstory to snatch insects on the wing, and they need bare ground to perch. They are often found in open woodland like pine barrens, as well as small open areas near denser wooded ecosystems—but rarely, if ever, in large tracts of dense thickets.

Sites to Search for Whip-poor-wills

Most places in Massachusetts no longer fit the above criteria with the exceptions of the southeastern and central-west part of the state.

In Plymouth County, try driving the roads of Myles Standish State Forest just after dark.

On Cape Cod, the pine barrens of Wellfleet and Truro often have high densities of Whip-poor-wills; roads through pine barrens between route 6 and the Atlantic beaches are reliable, and even residential roads adjacent to pine barrens can be productive. Crane Wildlife Management Area on the upper cape is also great.

Closer to Boston, you’ll occasionally have luck in the Blue Hills Reservation and on ranger-led programs at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge on Plum Island (which closes at dusk).

Most places around Quabbin Reservoir and the wilder areas of the Connecticut River Valley are excellent for Whip-poor-wills, but few human observers look there at night. If you see a Whip-poor-will out there, report it on eBird, or let us know in the comments!

 

Predicting Spring Migration: Part 3

(This is the final installment in a series on birding by radar. Read the first and second post first so this one makes sense!)

On May 20, 2017, Bay-breasted Warblers seemed to drip from every tree at Mass Audubon’s Marblehead Neck Wildlife Sanctuary. Birders tallied dozens of this normally scarce migrant practically on arrival, alongside equally impressive numbers of Canada Warblers, Blackburnian Warblers, and other migrants. The air filled with high-pitched warbler songs so much that it was difficult to distinguish one from the next. Plum Island was equally loaded, with some observers tallying 123 species for the day. Was this a fallout, or just an excellent day for migration?

Fallout is one of the most exciting spectacles a birder can hope to experience in migration. Serious birders mistakenly use this term all the time to mean “a lot of migrants in one area,” but fallout refers to a very specific phenomenon: birds that cut short their migratory journey due to severe weather or exhaustion.

Birds will fall out along the coast if they are blown far off course over the ocean; they return to land hungry and tired, and large numbers feed at ground-level in coastal vegetation.  Fast-moving fronts of severe weather can also cause fallouts when they interrupt bands of migrating birds, and stationary fronts can stall migrants that land when they encounter it and build up along its edge.

On May 20th, 2017, birders who read the radar saw that northeastern Massachusetts experienced a borderline fallout; a storm had blown birds against the coast and over the ocean, but the weather cleared early enough that many grounded birds continued migrating afterwards. Regardless, the superb birding that day was undeniably predictable.

Reading the Radar on May 20, 2017

The radar for this night showed moderate migration, with a front of severe weather pushing birds south and east. The dense (green and red) precipitation is pictured up against a group of birds, represented by the blue line between the edge of the storm and the mass of birds in the center of the frame.

As the front moved east (see below), the density of migrants increased just to its south. The birds at the edge of the storm, pictured in blue above, appear to have been pushed into the main mass of birds, where they show up as a streak of green (higher-density) in the image below.

The velocity map below paints a slightly different picture. The black areas between the storm and the birds show that the storm is grounding birds. But the birds just away from the edge—that red spur in New Hampshire, for example—are not getting pushed south by it.

The red color (that is, increased relative velocity reading) of that patch of birds shows that they are either 1) continuing to fly east but increasing their speed or 2) flying north instead of east, as if to go around the storm, and maintaining their speed.  In either case, the fact that these birds are being detected further away from the station than the rest of the cluster indicates that they increased their flying altitude (recall that the further away birds are from the station, the higher they need to be to show up on the radar). It’s anybody’s guess why they would be doing this; the storm exists at a higher altitude than the birds, so flying up into it seems counterintuitive.

What Was Missing

Since the front passed fairly early in the evening, many migrants had a chance to pick themselves up and move along after the storm passed. It is not a reach to imagine that the birds that built up along the edge of the storm took off again after the storm passed, and moved northeast again, landing in similar areas along the Maine coast.

What Looked Promising

Storm or no storm, a forecast of west winds turning northwest at dawn is always a good sign for coastal sites. West winds blow inland migrants against the coast, where many prefer to land instead of flying over the water. Other birds overshoot the coast in strong winds, and when winds turn northwest at dawn, these ambitious flyers drop back in at coastal sites like Plum Island and Marblehead Neck.

The Results

A small but significant stream of birds poured off the ocean and onto the coast in the morning. Some experts say that this was strictly because they were pushed east by the storm, but some hold that these birds would have overshot the coast with the west wind anyway.  In either case, velocity readings from early (4:30-5:30) the next morning show many birds over the ocean colored in yellows, olives, and some blue: birds that are not moving directly away from or directly towards the radar station. In some areas, this means they were moving towards the coast.

Arrows on this map indicating bird direction were determined by drawing a line from the radar station (circled) out to a point with birds, and then drawing an arrow slightly over 90 degrees to this line for birds moving slightly away from the station (yellow).

Likewise, the arrow would be at exactly 90 degrees to the line for birds moving neither towards nor away from the station, slightly under 90 degrees to the line for birds moving slightly towards the station (light blues and greys) and in the direction (or close to it) of the line for birds moving strongly towards or away from the station (colored red or deep blue). If you didn’t follow this, don’t worry: the key is that birds over the water at dawn often means coastal fallout.

To sum it up, there were three elements of that evening’s radar that practically screamed “Go birding on the coast tomorrow”:

  1. Radar showing many birds moving more east than north, and some shooting over the coast at high speed
  2. A strong storm that could force migrants against the coast even more vigorously than the winds could, and might even ground many of them.
  3. Most importantly, birds coming in off the ocean early in the morning (4:30-5:30).

Lo and behold, it was an incredible day on the coast the following morning, even though arguments over how much the early-evening storm had to do with it remain unresolved.

This is just one example of how reading the radar can lead to better birding.  Try it for yourself this spring and see if you strike spring migrant gold!

Predicting Spring Migration: Part 2

Last week, we posted an article on predicting bird movements with radar.  Here’s what we went over:

—How birds show up on Doppler radar as solid, expanding circles of radar interference around radar stations, and why this happens

—How to tell these signals apart from precipitation or normal weather patterns

—How larger circles don’t necessarily mean more birds

This week, winds over Massachusetts are shifting. Steady southwest winds may bring a major influx of migrants as early as Tuesday night. So, here’s the rest of what you’ll need to know about watching birds on Doppler radar!

A Need For (Wind) Speed

it’s possible to see airborne objects’ speed relative to the ground using Doppler radar. Birds fly at about 10-15 knots, and know where they want to go. So, they’ll either be moving 10-15 knots faster than the wind if they’re flying in the same direction as the wind, or they’ll be moving in a different direction entirely. Other airborne objects, like insects or dust particles, will always move with the wind.

Here’s how to see the velocity for radar-detected objects online:

Go to the national website for radar data.

  1. In the top left, click on “0.5° Velocity”. (Selecting “reflectivity” will show you the density of the signal, but not the speed.  Velocity, on the other hand, won’t show you how thick the air is with birds—it will only show their speed).
  2. In the top right, go to the drop-down menu for “end time” to select the end time for the series of radar images you want to view. It’s in Universal Time, which is 4-5 hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time. Selecting “0500” is best if you want to look at last night’s migration, and selecting “most recent” is best if it’s the early nighttime and you want to see what birds are currently passing overhead.
  3. Go to the drop-down menu for “loop duration” and select 5 hours (or however long you want the series of radar images to be).
  4. Click on the letters “BOS” over Eastern Massachusetts to view radar images!

Image modified from the National Center for Atmospheric Research

In radar images, velocity is always measured relative to the radar station.  So, parts of a cluster of birds with “negative” velocity are moving towards the radar station, and parts of a cluster with positive velocity are moving away from it. The red areas in the image show movement away from the radar station (the dark dot drawn in the center of the image), from southwest to northeast. Blue areas show movement towards the radar station—also from southwest to northeast. Birds in the yellow, gray, and green areas are slower-moving relative to the station: as they pass by it, they are neither moving towards it nor away from it.

The wind was about 20kts (knots) from the southwest when this image was taken.  Since this radar signal shows objects moving NE around 35kts, it’s clear they aren’t just drifting with the wind.  These are bona fide birds!

To check wind speed and direction in your area (to compare to clusters of airborne objects on radar maps), try using Wind Map. Just click to zoom, and hover your cursor over Massachusetts to see the wind speed.

Where Will Airborne Migrants Land?

Velocity data can also tell us where birds are going to end up.  Birds usually migrate for between 5-7.5 hours a night, so multiplying their airspeed by around 6 gives us a very rough approximation of how far they’ll travel in one night. On most nights, this works out to be around 150-200 miles. This means that you can often get a general sense of how good the birding will be in Eastern MA based on early-evening images from Southern CT and New York.

For example, when there’s a big early-evening movement of birds over OKX (the radar station for Southern Connecticut and Long Island) and the radar velocity data show birds moving to the east or northeast, chances are that birding will be good in Eastern MA the following morning. If migrants are moving steadily due north, however, that can be a good sign to head further inland the next day.  Of course, it’s always best to check early-morning radar images as well—on some nights with north winds, migrants will pour in from the Atlantic Ocean right before dawn, making for great coastal birding.

In our next post, we’ll discuss radar images from the night before the best day of spring migration in 2017. It should serve as a case study in how watching the weather and radar can lead to encounters with incredible concentrations of migratory songbirds. Stay tuned!

Predicting Spring Migration: Part 1

If you ask birders what their favorite holiday is, a few will always smile and reply, “spring migration.” Protracted over several weeks, spring migration can indeed feel like a holiday, or at least an annual ritual: time off from work (to go birding), reconnecting with community (other birders), and seasonal gifts that nature drops off in our yards (in the form of colorful warblers).

For beginning birders, mornings in spring can feel as unpredictable as waking up on Christmas as a child to see what Santa brought. Migratory birds appear (or don’t) as if by magic, and the species differ from day to day. There’s no telling what a morning in May can bring. But birds are creatures of habit; with a few tricks, it’s easy to take the guesswork out of birding during spring migration.

Warblers Follow The Wind

West and Southwest winds bring us the greatest numbers of migrants, which would ordinarily move straight North from their Mid-Atlantic stopovers. In Westerly winds, warblers sometimes build up against the coast as they try to avoid being blown out over the water. When the wind is from the South, the Berkshires and Pioneer Valley hold more migrants.

Read the Radar

Doppler radar, mostly used by forecasters use to track weather patterns, also readily picks up signals from migrating birds. Radar works by emitting radio waves that are reflected back to the transmitting antenna by any objects in the way. It’s sensitive enough to detect droplets of water in the air, so it was no shock when ornithologists in the 1950s realized radar could pick up birds as well. Now, advanced birders as well as scientists rely on radar to understand birds’ mass movements at night.

A Brief Radar Primer

There are many ways of accessing radar data online, but the most beginner-friendly is Paul Hurtado’s bird radar website.  Just click on the date you want to see radar maps for and you’re good to go!

The most important part of reading the radar is distinguishing birds from weather patterns.  Rain or hail shows up as denser interference (represented on this map by green and yellow colors) in irregular, ragged shapes. Birds, on the other hand, appear on the map as distinct circles, and show up as lower-density (pictured on this map as blue and light blue). Hard to believe as it may be, most of what the radar is picking up in the image below are birds.

Visualization by Paul Hurtado; modified from www.pauljhurtado.com.

Why do these birds show up as clusters or circles around radar stations? Radar antennae point their beams up at an angle, creating a funnel-shaped zone of detection. Groups of migrating birds fly relatively low compared to rainclouds and so only pass through a circle-shaped cross-section of radar beams. Think of a cone-shaped searchlight- the lower down in the beam you go, the smaller its area is.

So, larger circles don’t mean more birds—they just mean birds flying higher up, where the radar beam is broader. (You can see in the image below that some of the blue circles have started to overlap). But more birds filling the sky will mean that more of the radar beam is reflected, creating a higher-density signal. Dense areas of migrating birds are represented by lighter blues and greens (see Texas and Maine on this map).

Stay Tuned For More

This is just the tip of the iceberg! There’s much more to learn. In a few days, we’ll follow up with a post on how radar can show birds’ speed and direction, and where they land after a long night migrating.  Subscribe to our blog to get part 2 in your inbox!

Where Do Woodcocks Go In The Snow?

When winter weather drags on into late March, our earliest spring migrants still show up on schedule!  Birders often hear the sharp, reedy “peent!” of American Woodcocks in mild weather amid other spring sounds, like the clamor of wood frogs and spring peepers. Hearing them calling from fields covered in several feet of snow can seem incongruous. So how does lingering snow affect these enigmatic birds’ ability to find food?

Beak Superpowers

Woodcocks find insects by probing underground with their beaks. The tips of their beaks pack a bundle of highly sensitive nerves, which they use to pick up on vibrations from insects moving in the soil.

The tip of their beak can also flex open while the rest of it stays closed, allowing woodcocks to delicately pick up food without having to pry their whole bill open underground. The ability to open just the end of the beak is called distal rhyncokinesis  (rine-co-kin-EE-sis), or simply rhycokinesis  when discussing beak flexibility more generally. It’s a trait shared by many members of the sandpiper family, woodcocks included.


This photo only partially shows how flexible the tip of a woodcock bill is– underground,  they can close the lower two thirds and move just the outer third. (Photo: Will Freedberg) 

 

With such particular feeding habits, spring snowstorms might seem to spell trouble for these ground-dwelling insect-eaters. In particular, 2018 has seen a spate of nor’easters barreling through New England, dumping foot after foot upon snow.

Snowed-in Woodcocks Seek Open Ground

Woodcocks can often feed successfully through a shallow layer of snow, but only if the ground is not frozen through. If the ground has already thawed, a covering of snow will in fact keep the ground from freezing fully again, if temperatures return below freezing.

But March 2018 has seen snowpack deeper than a woodcock’s bill is long, even when the ground hasn’t been frozen solid. In years like this, woodcocks feed near any natural features that keep snow off the ground—along the banks of streams and flowing water, or under coniferous trees that partially shelter the ground from snow.

Birders in the know will look for them in these areas, and are careful not to scare or flush these easily-stressed birds. Their flight displays have continued along the edges of fields so far regardless of snow cover, and should keep going into April.

For more tips on how to find woodcocks, check out our list of sites and programs!

Hot Off the Press! State of the Birds 2017

Black-capped Chickadee may face an uncertain future in Massachusetts. ©Bill Thompson, USFWS

It is with great pleasure that we announce that our third edition of State of the Birds is now available. State of the Birds: Massachusetts Birds and Our Changing Climate focuses on what the future may hold for the breeding birds of Massachusetts as the climate continues to change.

Our last two State of the Birds reports, released in 2011 and 2013, compared the past to the present and identified changes in Massachusetts bird populations. The 2017 edition builds on that work by using science to predict the future.

Climate Matters For Birds and People

Most birds have limited distributions and, to some extent, climate controls the range of those distributions. To glimpse the future, we used a statistical analysis called climate envelope modelling.

Put simply, climate envelope modelling uses real bird and climate (various measures of temperature and precipitation) data to define the preferred climate of a bird species—their “climate envelope”—as it is today. Then the models substitute predicted values of the climate variables into the equation to project a bird’s climate envelope in 2050.

Using the results of our analysis, we assigned each of the 143 species analyzed a “Climate Vulnerability” score. There were some expected results and some surprising results. The overarching message was that birds are already feeling the effects of climate change and even some of our most common birds will probably experience further changes by 2050.

It’s In Our Power to Change the Future

While climate change can feel like an overwhelming problem, it is a problem that we can solve. Much like Scrooge in A Christmas Carol, we are being shown a possible future for our birds, and, just like Scrooge, we can take action today to change that future.

Visit the website, download the report, and share it with your friends and family. If we work together we can protect birds, wildlife, and ourselves.

Check out the article in the Boston Globe about the State of the Birds report.

Please consider supporting our bird conservation work by making a donation today. Thank you!

Your Gift to Birds: A List Motivated by The Messenger

The_Messenger_Website-001Mass Audubon recently hosted a screening of the film The Messenger, a new documentary describing the challenges faced by migratory songbirds. The film is sweeping in scope, beautifully filmed, and touches themes resonant to all who love nature.

The film paints a vivid portrait of the struggles birds face every day while they are simply trying to stay alive and reproduce in today’s rapidly changing world. Bird populations are declining due to multiple threats (habitat loss, cat predation, collisions with buildings, hunting, and pesticides) and the film is informative in its exploration of the leading causes of bird mortality. With all of these threats, viewers may be left wondering, how can we help?

Here are recommendations, some big, some small, but all designed to help save and protect the nature of Massachusetts.

Go Outside and Play! Take the time to go outside every day, even for just a few minutes. Listen for birds, identify their calls, make notes, watch a bird feeding, flying, building a nest, take your children or grandchildren on a nature walk and make a bird list. Visit the open space in your town, in your neighborhood, or by your office, and share your love of birds. Take a birding program at a Mass Audubon Nature Center – we’d love to have you. The closer your daily connection is to nature, the happier you will be and the stronger advocate you will become for protecting open space right here in Massachusetts.

logoBuy Bird-Friendly Coffee and Paper. Shade-grown and reserve-grown coffee each have real benefits for resident tropical birds as well as “our” North American species that winter in the tropics. Two great options are Birds and Beans and Café Solar. Smithsonian also certifies bird-friendly coffee, and a list of their vendors  can make ordering easy. Look for paper certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), for your home and office. This is from well-managed forests, and your purchase can help to drive better forest management as demand for FSC certified products increases.

Keep Your Cat Indoors. We love our pets, and we love your pets too. Indoor cats live longer and healthier lives. Cat predation in the US and Canada alone annually causes the death of at least 2 billion wild birds – adults and nestlings. Cats are not native to North America, and our wild birds did not evolve with them as predators. If your current cat is an outdoor cat, shift them to an indoor life style, or at least take the pledge for your next pet to be indoors-only. We recognize that this concept may take years to catch on, but please do your part by keeping your cat indoors.

Green Your Electricity. Range changes due to climate change could imperil nearly half of U.S. make-the-switch-logo_medium_landscapebirds within this century. Switching to green energy is one of the most effective ways to reduce your impact on the environment. Mass Audubon’s Make the Switch campaign can help you take meaningful action against climate change. Share this with your neighbors and friends. Investing in green power will pay dividends to the next generation, think of it as your gift to them.

Reduce Your Consumption of Meat. Meat, particularly red meat, is one of the most energy intensive, and land consuming foods we buy – about 270 pounds per person, per year. Production of meat is fuel-intensive, water intensive, and can cause long-term damage to the landscape. Much of this “hoof print” occurs as hay and corn are grown and harvested to feed or “finish” cattle. It takes about 6.7 pounds of grain or forage to make ¼ pound of beef. You can reduce your carbon, water, and land-use footprint today by choosing a meat-free meal a few times a week – boost the value of this by buying vegetables locally. No, your doctor did not tell us to include this, but we think he or she will approve.

Reduce Bird Window Collisions. Over 600 million birds are estimated to be killed by window strikes each year. The majority of these become fatally disoriented by artificial light from skyscrapers during migration. Mass Audubon works with The City of Boston to run Lights Out Boston which reduces energy and helps save migratory birds. Learn more and sign up. You can also help at home by installing decals or other treatments to ensure your windows do not reflect foliage or sky.

Support Bird Conservation Programs. Supporting local conservation, through local land trusts, will help to keep your great outdoors an open playground for the animals that thrive there, and give you and your family and friends a place to recharge and build memories. On a larger scale, projects like Boreal Birds Need Half are leading the way in conserving the “lungs of the planet”. Help them save the boreal bird nursery, and the important CO2 sink that has the added benefit of fueling our songbird migrations.

Mass Audubon is here to help protect the birds of Massachusetts, forever. Since 1896 we have worked to identify and measure challenges to birds, and to build innovative solutions while we educate the next generation of conservation leaders. With your support, we will continue to address the challenges to birds and to all of the Nature of Massachusetts.

Please Donate to Bird Conservation!

Resources List

sotb_2013_coverWe will be exploring many topics on this blog, and wanted to give you a list of resources that we use to guide us. It is not exhaustive, and will be added to over time.

Each of these references has links to deeper information, and many are updated, or have new editions, coming out every year or two. The Breeding Bird Survey is usually analyzed each year, the Massachusetts and National State of the Birds reports are updated every few years, and the IUCN Red List is regularly updated.

Status and Trends of Massachusetts Birds

Status and Trends of Breeding Birds in all States, Regionally, and Nationally

Climate Change

Details of Bird Behavior, Trends, and Life Histories

Status of Birds Worldwide

Current Bird Sightings in Massachusetts